Analects 4:3

Confucius said

Only the jen person can love others and can hate others.

It is only the [truly] virtuous man, who can love, or who can hate, others. L

Only he who has the spirit of goodness within him is really able either to love or to hate. G

It is only men of moral character who know how to love men or to hate men. K

Only the virtuous are competent to love or to hate men. S

Only they in whom it exists can have (right) likings and dislikings for others. J


An individual’s jen only loves what is worthy of love, and hates what is worthy of hate.

Non jen love and hate is tainted with impurity, based largely on selfishness and errant desires, and comes in such forms as envy, malice, schadenfreude, etc.

In order to have the truest and most complete affection for others, we should aim to know them for what they are, love and promote their worthiness, and hate and not promote their unworthiness.

Having right loves and hates leads to the attainment of jen

jen leads to having right loves and hates.

We must hate non jen in order to love jen to the utmost.