Analects 2:15

Confucius said

Hsueh without thinking is misleading.

Thinking without hsueh is confusing.

Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous. L*

Study without thought is vain; thought with­out study is perilous. G


Hsueh is not complete without personally thinking—but thinking without going through the active process of hsueh also has numerous limitations and drawbacks.

In order to pursue complete hsueh , one must include an adequate amount of reflection and thought. However, merely thinking without having an underlying life purpose of hsueh is in vain and misguided.

Though many people emphasize personal experience, teachings, or personal reflection, the chun tzu utlilizes all of these and keeps each within its proper bounds