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Analects 14:45

Tzu Lu asked what constituted the chun tzu.

Confucius said, “He cultivates himself in self-reverence.”

Tzu Lu said, “Is this all?”

Confucius said, “He cultivates himself so as to bring harmony to others.”

Tzu Lu said, “And is this all?”

Confucius said, “He cultivates himself so as to bring harmony to everyone. He cultivates himself so as to bring harmony to everyone’—even Yao and Shun found this difficult.”


Tsze-lu asked what constituted the superior man.

The Master said, “The cultivation of himself in reverential carefulness.”

“And is this all?” said Tsze-lu.

“He cultivates himself so as to give rest to others,” was the reply.

“And is this all?” again asked Tsze-lu.

The Master said, “He cultivates himself so as to give rest to all the people. He cultivates himself so as to give rest to all the people:-- even Yao and Shun were still solicitous about this.” L*


Tzu Lu asked about the conduct of the princely man.

The Master said: “He cultivates himself so as to gain in self-respect.”

“Does he rest content with that?”

“He cultivates himself,” was the reply, “so as to give happiness to others.”

“And is he content with that?”

“He cultivates himself so as to confer peace and prosperity on the whole people.

By self-cultivation to confer peace and prosperity on the whole people—was not this the object which Yao and Shun still labored to attain?” G


Tsz-lu having asked what made a “superior man,” he answered, “Self-culture, with a view to becoming seriously-minded.”

“Nothing more than that?” said he.

“Self-culture with a view to the greater satisfaction of others,” added the Master.

“That, and yet no more?”

“Self-culture with a view to the greater satisfaction of all the clans and classes,” he again added. “Self-culture for the sake of all—a result that, that would almost put Yu and Shun into the shade!” J

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