Analects 14:33

Confucius said

Not presupposing deceit or assuming falsehood, yet being readily aware of them—isn’t this worthy?

He who does not anticipate attempts to deceive him, nor think beforehand of his not being believed, and yet apprehends these things readily [(when they occur)];—is he not a man of superior worth? L

Is not he a sage who neither anticipates deceit nor suspects had faith ill others, yet is prompt to detect them when they appear? G

A man who does not anticipate deceit nor imagine untrustworthiness, but who can readily detect their presence, must be a very superior man. K

Not to expect falsehood, nor look for mistrust, and yet to forestall them, shows worth in a man. H


The chun tzu does not make any assumptions about anyone.